This will probably be a very boring answer
Loop - Bowline
Bend - Sheet Bend
Hitch - Roundturn and two half hitches
Stopper - Figure eight
Lashing - Square lashing
Knot you can't live without - Reef knot (there's no binder on your list and I would definitely need one)
All these knots are simple and have proven their value over several decades. They are easy to untie (which is very important because I most likely have a limited amount of rope), they are adaptable, quick to tie and perform well in most materials.
A challenger to the bowline would be a mid line loop. The loops could be used for climbing up the rope, or gaining mechanical advantage in some situations.
Challenger to the sheet bend would be something more secure, something which doesn't unties that easily.
Challenger to round turn and two half hitches would either be a vertical pull hitch, an adjustable hitch or a mid line hitch which can be loaded on both ends (like the clove hitch).
The ashley stopper for more bulk or double overhand to stop rope ends from fraying (figure eight unties too easily).
Gleipnir and constrictor are a lot stronger than reef knot, but aren't as adaptable nor perform as well in other materials (like clothing, bandages++).